comparison of oxidation behaviour of nuclear graphite

(PDF) An investigation of acoustic emission from an

Examples of two amplitude distributions from (i) an unirradiated graphite, and (ii) an irradiated graphite specimens on a third load cycle to failure. Fig. 9 .9An example of AE event density versus stress plot for an irradiated graphite monotonically loaded to failure.Fig. 10.

Study on the Comprehensive Properties and

At the beginning, a comparative analysis was made on the oxidation corrosion rate and ash content of A3-3 matrix graphite (MG) pebbles lathed before and after high temperature purification (HTP) treatment. Their oxidation corrosion rate and ash contents were almost identical, which indicated that the HTP process was to purify the entire MG pebbles and not limited on the surfaces. Furthermore

Comparison of Predictive and Experimental Data From

Ambrosek, RG, Utterbeck, DJ. Comparison of Predictive and Experimental Data From Graphite Irradiations in the Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Test Vehicle. Proceedings of the ASME 2003 Heat Transfer Summer Conference.Heat Transfer: Volume 2.Las


Graphite is used within a reactor as a moderator and a reflector material. During fast neutron irradiation, the physical properties and dimensions of nuclear graphite are changed significantly. Graphite shrinkage could lead to disengagement of individual

Oxidation, Embrittlement, and Growth of TREAT

Phalnikar [] studied the oxidation behavior of graphite-melted Bureau of Mines zirconium in air from 400 to 1200 C. Both oxygen and nitrogen enter into the reaction, and for temperatures below 1050C an outer white or buff monoclinic scale of ZrO 2 forms in addition to an inner black scale of monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO 2, cubic ZrN, voids, and possibly dissolved nitrogen in the metal [ 12 ].

Pore structure development in oxidized IG

article{osti_1047626, title = {Pore structure development in oxidized IG-110 nuclear graphite}, author = {Wang, Peng and Contescu, Cristian I and Yu, Suyuan and Burchell, Timothy D}, abstractNote = {The oxidation-induced porosity development in nuclear graphite has great effect on its mechanical behavior, thus it is very important to understand the pore structure development of nuclear

Nuclear graphite

Nuclear graphite is any grade of graphite, usually synthetic graphite, specifically manufactured for use as a moderator or reflector within a nuclear reactor.Graphite is an important material for the construction of both historical and modern nuclear reactors, due to its extreme purity and its ability to withstand extremely high temperatures.


Before oxidation, when the vermicular rate was 89%, the surface of vermicular graphite cast iron was composed of vermicular graphite and spherical graphite without oxidation, as shown in Figure 1a.However, after oxidation for 500 h, as shown in Figure 1b, the worm-like graphites on the surface of the material were mostly oxidized, and oxide affected zones appeared with serious oxidation.

Nuclear graphite

Nuclear graphite is any grade of graphite, usually synthetic graphite, specifically manufactured for use as a moderator or reflector within a nuclear reactor.Graphite is an important material for the construction of both historical and modern nuclear reactors, due to its extreme purity and its ability to withstand extremely high temperatures.

Experimental study on the oxidation behavior and

Microstructural evolution before and after oxidation was investigated using scanning electron microscope, mercury intrusion, and Raman spectroscopy. The apparent activation energy of NG-CT-10 nuclear graphite is 161.4 kJ/mol in a reaction temperature range of 550–700 C and that of NG-CT-20 is 153.5 kJ/mol in a temperature range of 550–650 C.

The Influence of Pores on Irradiation Property of Selected

As structural material and moderator in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), nuclear graphite endures large flux of irradiation in its service time. The microstructure of nuclear graphite is a topical issue studied to predict the irradiation property of graphite and improve manufacturing process. In our present work, the pores in graphite are focused, and the relationship between pore

Influence of oxidation on toughness parameters for two

2005/4/1Single edge notched beams of two nuclear graphites were oxidized in CO 2 at 900 C up to 49% burn-off for IM1-24 graphite and up to 12% burn-off for PGA graphite, and fracture properties K Ic, γ wof and G Ic were measured as a function of oxidation.

Radiation Effects in Graphite

2 •Nuclear graphite •Radiation effects Research into the subject of radiation damage in graphite began in the early 1950s as a part of the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Since that time many graphite moderated nuclear fission reactors have

British Library EThOS: Crack growth resistance in nuclear

R-curve behaviour is often used for evaluating crack growth resistance in quasibrittle materials but few studies have focused on polycrystalline graphite. In this study, R-curve behaviour in three commercial grade nuclear graphites, of varying structure and properties, is compared using an optical method, a theoretical compliance method, and, a potential drop (PD) technique to measure crack

INL (Windes) ASME Considerations for HTR Graphite and Composite Components

1. There is no single "nuclear" grade of graphite We can't design around a specific nuclear grade as metals can (i.e., 316, 316L, 617, etc.) 2. Graphite has significant flaws (pores/cracks) – by design We do not want to eliminate these flaws 3. Graphite is

The effect of thermal oxidation on the coefficient of

Nuclear graphite has been used in nuclear reactors for almost 80 years, its material behavior after oxidation and irradiation is still not fully understood. In this paper, an old question of why the oxidation has a considerable effect on Young's modulus but not on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is tried to be answered. The multi-scale finite-element method was used to analyze CTE

Oxygen adsorption and CO desorption behavior of B

Improving oxidation resistance of nuclear graphite is critical to security operation of HTR reactor. Even though the observation of catalytic oxidation 19,20 of boron at low concentration makes the role of substitutional boron more mysterious, we expect to understand the mechanism of B or N doping on the behavior of O 2 adsorption and CO desorption.

On the nature of cracks and voids in nuclear graphite

graphite, so an understanding of its behaviour is essential for plant safety and maximised power output. Nuclear graphite consists of a coke-based filler, filler-binder matrix, and voids. The voids are in the form of gas-escape pores and cracks of varying dimension

Insights into thermal reduction of the oxidized graphite from the electro

between pristine graphite (PG) and electro-treated graphite (EGO). As shown in Fig. 1, the pristine graphite grinded from the simulative nuclear graphite matrix ball performed a high degree of thermal stability in insert atmosphere. The weight just dropped by 2.5%

Nuclear Graphite Research Needs in the 21st Century

Research Needs for Nuclear Graphite in the 21st Century Several opportunities exist to improve graphite's utility as a moderator in modern nuclear reactors. One is increasing oxidation resistance by either diffusing interstitials throughout the graphite structure or

Comparison of oxidation behaviour of nuclear graphite

2020/4/15The integrity of graphite component integrity directly influences reactor safety. It is necessary to understand the oxidation behaviour of nuclear grade graphite at temperatures under conditions associated with an air ingress accident [].

Comparison of oxidation behaviour of nuclear graphite

2020/4/1In this study, the oxidation characteristics of nuclear grade graphites IG-110, IG-430, Type A(MA), Type B (), PGA, ATR-2E, G347A and G458A in air environments at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1600 C were investigated. The oxidation rates and activation energies were determined based on mass loss measurements in a series of oxidation tests. Significant increases in oxidation rates


In 2001 the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) decided to underwrite the Nuclear Graphite Research Group (NGRG) at the University of Manchester, UK with the aim of providing a source of independent research and


In this work, the oxidation behaviour of the small pieces of graphite IG-110 was investigated by changing oxidation temperature and inlet gas flow rate. In order to obtain an exhaustive understanding of the oxidation of the graphite, the microstructure of

Nuclear Graphite

CHI Se-Hwan ; KIM Gen-Chan (2008), Comparison of 3 MeV C+ ion-irradiation effects between the nuclear graphite made of pitch and petroleum cokes, Journal of nuclear materials, vol. 381,pg. 212 Contescu, Cristian I. and Burchell, T. (2009), Characterization of Porosity Development in Oxidized Graphite using Automated Image Analysis Techniques, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL/TM

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